Juventus were founded as Sport-Club Juventus in late 1897 by pupils from the Massimo D'Azeglio Lyceum school in Turin, among them the brothers Eugenio and Enrico Canfari, but were renamed as Foot-Ball Club Juventus two years later. The club joined the Italian Football Championship in 1900. In 1904, the businessman Ajmone-Marsan revived the finances of the football club Juventus, making it also possible to transfer the training field from piazza d'armi to the more appropriate Velodrome Umberto I. During this period, the team wore a pink and black kit. Juventus first won the league championship in 1905 while playing at their Velodrome Umberto I ground. By this time the club colours had changed to black and white stripes, inspired by English side Notts County.
Juventus have played in black and white striped shirts, with white shorts, sometimes black shorts since 1903. Originally, they played in pink shirts with a black tie. The father of one of the players made the earliest shirts, but continual washing faded the colour so much that in 1903 the club sought to replace them. Juventus asked one of their team members, Englishman John Savage, if he had any contacts in England who could supply new shirts in a colour that would better withstand the elements. He had a friend who lived in Nottingham, who being a Notts County supporter, shipped out the black and white striped shirts to Turin. Juventus have worn the shirts ever since, considering the colours to be aggressive and powerful.
After the first two years (1897 and 1898), during which Juventus played in the Parco del Valentino and Parco Cittadella, their matches were held in the Piazza d'Armi Stadium until 1908, except in 1905 (the first year of the scudetto) and in 1906, years in which it played at the Corso Re Umberto.
There was a split at the club in 1906, after some of the staff considered moving Juve out of Turin. President Alfred Dick was unhappy with this and left with some prominent players to found FBC Torino which in turn spawned the Derby della Mole. Juventus spent much of this period steadily rebuilding after the split, surviving the First World War.
The first ever official game participated in by Juventus was in the Third Federal Football Championship, the predecessor of Serie A, against Torinese in a Juventus loss 0–1. The biggest victory recorded by Juventus was 15–0 against Cento, in the second round of the Coppa Italia in the 1926–27 season. In the league, Fiorentina and Fiumana were famously on the end of Juventus' biggest championship wins, with both beaten 11–0 in the 1928–29 season. Juventus' heaviest championship defeats came during the 1911–12 and 1912–13 seasons: they were against Milan in 1912 (1–8) and Torino in 1913 (0–8).
FIAT owner Edoardo Agnelli gained control of the club in 1923 and built a new stadium. This helped the club to its second scudetto (league championship) in the 1925–26 season, after beating Alba Roma with an aggregate score of 12–1 (Antonio Vojak's goals were essential that season). The club established itself as a major force in Italian football since the 1930s, becoming the country's first professional club and the first with a decentralised fan base, which led it to win a record of five consecutive Italian championships (the first four under the management of Carlo Carcano) and form the core of the Italy national team during the Vittorio Pozzo's era, including the 1934 world champion squad, with star players such as Raimundo Orsi, Luigi Bertolini, Giovanni Ferrari and Luis Monti, among others.
In January 2017, president Andrea Agnelli announced the most recent change to the Juventus badge, revealing a video showing the introduction of the new badge. The badge shows the word Juventus on top, with two capital Js shown together in different fonts with a small opening between them to almost make a bigger J. Agnelli said that the badge reflects "the Juventus way of living". Juventus was the first team in association football history to adopt a star, who added one above their badge in 1958 to represent their tenth Italian Football Championship and Serie A title, and has since become popularized with other clubs as well.
Juventus moved to the Stadio Comunale, but for the rest of the 1930s and the majority of the 1940s they were unable to recapture championship dominance. After the Second World War, Gianni Agnelli was appointed honorary president. The club added two more league championships to its name in the 1949–50 and 1951–52 seasons, the latter of which was under the management of Englishman Jesse Carver. Two new strikers were signed during 1957–58: Welshman John Charles and Italian Argentine Omar Sívori, playing alongside longtime member Giampiero Boniperti. That season saw Juventus awarded with the Golden Star for Sport Excellence to wear on their shirts after becoming the first Italian side to win ten league titles. In the same season, Sívori became the first ever player at the club to win the European Footballer of the Year. The following season, they beat Fiorentina to complete their first league and cup double, winning Serie A and Coppa Italia. Boniperti retired in 1961 as the all-time top scorer at the club, with 182 goals in all competitions, a club record which stood for 45 years.
The Torinese club has also contributed to a lesser degree to the national sides of other nations. Zinédine Zidane and captain Didier Deschamps were Juventus players when they won the 1998 World Cup with France, as well as Blaise Matuidi in the 2018 World Cup, making it as the association football club which supplied the most FIFA World Cup winners globally (25). Three Juventus players have also won the European Football Championship with a nation other than Italy, Luis del Sol won it in 1964 with Spain, while the Frenchmen Michel Platini and Zidane won the competition in 1984 and 2000 respectively.
During the rest of the decade, the club won the league just once more in 1966–67. However, the 1970s saw Juventus further solidify their strong position in Italian football. Under former player Čestmír Vycpálek, they won the scudetto in 1971–72 and 1972–73, with players such as Roberto Bettega, Franco Causio and José Altafini breaking through. During the rest of the decade, they won the league twice more, with defender Gaetano Scirea contributing significantly. The later win was under Giovanni Trapattoni, who also led the club to their first ever major European title (the UEFA Cup) in 1977 and helped the club's domination continue on into the early part of the 1980s. During Trapattoni's tenure, many Juventus players also formed the backbone of the Italy national team during Enzo Bearzot's successful managerial era, including the 1978 World Cup, UEFA Euro 1980 and 1982 world champion squads.
Since 27 June 1967, Juventus Football Club has been a società per azioni (S.p.A.) and since 3 December 2001 the Torinese side is listed on the Borsa Italiana. As of 31 December 2015, the Juventus' shares are distributed between 63.8% to EXOR N.V., the Agnelli family's holding (a company of the Giovanni Agnelli and C.S.a.p.a Group), 5.0% to Lindsell Train Ltd. and 31.2% to other shareholders.(<2.0%) As of 5 July 2016, Lindsell Train Ltd. increased its holding to 10% and then Exor S.P.A decreased to 60.0%. Since 2012, Jeep became the new sponsor of Juventus, a car brand acquired by FIAT after the 2000s global financial crisis.
Overall, Juventus have won 67 official competitions, more than any other Italian club: 56 domestic trophies (which is also a record) and 11 official international competitions, making them, in the latter case, the second most successful Italian club in European competition. The club is fifth in Europe and eleventh in the world with the most international titles won officially recognised by their respective association football confederation and Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). In 1977, the Torinese side become the first in Southern Europe to have won the UEFA Cup and the first—and only to date—in Italian football history to achieve an international title with a squad composed by national footballers. In 1993, the club won its third competition's trophy, an unprecedented feat in the continent until then and the most for an Italian club. Juventus was also the first Italian club to achieve the title in the European Super Cup, having won the competition in 1984 and the first European club to win the Intercontinental Cup in 1985, since it was restructured by Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol (CONMEBOL)'s organizing committee five years beforehand.
Two Juventus players have won the golden boot award at the World Cup with Italy, Paolo Rossi in 1982 and Salvatore Schillaci in 1990. As well as contributing to Italy's World Cup winning sides, two Juventus players Alfredo Foni and Pietro Rava, represented Italy in the gold medal winning squad at the 1936 Summer Olympics. Three Juventus players represented their nation during the 1968 European Football Championship win for Italy: Sandro Salvadore, Ernesto Càstano and Giancarlo Bercellino.
Frenchman Michel Platini was also awarded the European Footballer of the Year title for three years in a row in 1983, 1984 and 1985, which is a record. Juventus are the first and one of the only two clubs to have players from their club winning the award in four consecutive years. It was Platini who scored the winning goal in the 1985 European Cup Final against Liverpool, but this was marred by a tragedy which changed European football. That year, Juventus became the first club in the history of European football to have won all three major UEFA competitions and, after their triumph in the Intercontinental Cup, the club also became the first, and thus far, the only in association football history, to have won all possible confederation competitions, (The Technician (UEFA) 2010:5) an achievement that it revalidated with the title won in the 1999 UEFA Intertoto Cup. With the exception of winning the closely contested Italian Championship of 1985–86, the rest of the 1980s were not very successful for the club. As well as having to contend with Diego Maradona's Napoli, both of the Milanese clubs, Milan and Internazionale, won Italian championships. However, Juventus did win a Coppa Italia-UEFA Cup double in 1990 under the guidance of former club legend Dino Zoff. In 1990, Juventus also moved into their new home, the Stadio delle Alpi, which was built for the 1990 World Cup. Despite the arrival of Italian star Roberto Baggio later that year for a world record transfer fee, the early 1990s under Luigi Maifredi and subsequently Trapattoni once again also saw little success for Juventus, as they only managed to win the UEFA Cup in 1993.
The club is unique in the world in having won all official confederation competitions and they have received, in recognition to winning the three major UEFA competitions —first case in the history of the European football and the only one to be reached with the same coach— The UEFA Plaque by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) on 12 July 1988.
Alessandro Del Piero holds Juventus' official appearance record of 705 appearances. He took over from Gaetano Scirea on 6 March 2008 against Palermo. He also holds the record for Serie A appearances with 478. Including all official competitions, Del Piero is the all-time leading goalscorer for Juventus, with 290—since joining the club in 1993. Giampiero Boniperti, who was the all-time topscorer since 1961 comes in second in all competitions with 182. In the 1933–34 season, Felice Borel scored 31 goals in 34 appearances, setting the club record for Serie A goals in a single season. Ferenc Hirzer is the club's highest scorer in a single season with 35 goals in 26 appearances in the 1925–26 season (record of Italian football). The most goals scored by a player in a single match is 6, which is also an Italian record. This was achieved by Omar Sívori in a game against Internazionale in the 1960–61 season.
The Torinese side was placed seventh—but the top Italian club—in the FIFA's century ranking of the best clubs in the world on 23 December 2000 and nine years later was ranked second best club in Europe during the 20th Century based on a statistical study series by International Federation of Football History & Statistics, the highest for an Italian club in both.
After a two-and-a-half-season absence, Lippi returned to the club in 2001, following his replacement Carlo Ancelotti's dismissal, signing big name players such as Gianluigi Buffon, David Trezeguet, Pavel Nedvěd and Lilian Thuram, helping the team to two more scudetto titles during the 2001–02 and 2002–03 seasons. Juventus were also part of an all Italian Champions League final in 2003, but lost out to Milan on penalties after the game ended in a 0–0 draw. At the conclusion of the following season, Lippi was appointed as the Italy national team's head coach, bringing an end to one of the most fruitful managerial spells in Juventus' history.
The signing of Gianluigi Buffon in 2001 from Parma cost Juventus €52 million (100 billion lire), making it the then-most expensive transfer for a goalkeeper of all-time until 2018. On 20 March 2016, Buffon set a new Serie A record for the longest period without conceding a goal (974 minutes) in the Derby della Mole during the 2015–16 season. On 26 July 2016, Argentine forward Gonzalo Higuaín became the third highest football transfer of all-time and highest ever transfer for an Italian club, at the time, when he was signed by Juventus for €90 million from Napoli. On 8 August 2016, Paul Pogba returned to his first club, Manchester United, for an all-time record for highest football transfer fee of €105 million, surpassing the former record holder Gareth Bale. The sale of Zinedine Zidane from Juventus to Real Madrid of Spain in 2001 was the world football transfer record at the time, costing the Spanish club around €77.5 million (150 billion lire). On 10 July 2018, Cristiano Ronaldo became the highest ever transfer for an Italian club with his €100 million transfer from Real Madrid.
The club's training ground was owned by Campi di Vinovo S.p.A, controlled by Juventus Football Club S.p.A. to 71.3%. In 2003, the club bought the lands from the subsidiary and later the company was dissolved. Since then, Juventus has not had any subsidiary.
From 1909 to 1922, Juventus played their internal competitions at Corso Sebastopoli Camp before moving the following year to Corso Marsiglia Camp, where they remained until 1933, winning four league titles. At the end of 1933, they began to play at the new Stadio Mussolini stadium inaugurated for the 1934 World Championships. After the Second World War, the stadium was renamed as Stadio Comunale Vittorio Pozzo. Juventus played home matches at the ground for 57 years, a total of 890 league matches. The team continued to host training sessions at the stadium until July 2003.
Fabio Capello was appointed as Juventus' coach in 2004 and led the club to two more consecutive Serie A first places. In May 2006, Juventus became one of the five clubs linked to a 2006 Italian football scandal, the result of which saw the club placed at the bottom of the league table and relegated to Serie B for the first time in its history. The club was also stripped of the 2005 title won under Capello, while the 2006 title, after a period sub judice, was assigned to Inter Milan.
Juventus's official emblem has undergone different and small modifications since the 1920s. The previous modification of the Juventus badge took place in 2004, when the emblem of the team changed to a black-and-white oval shield of a type used by Italian ecclesiastics. It is divided in five vertical stripes: two white stripes and three black stripes, inside which are the following elements, while in its upper section the name of the society superimposed on a white convex section, over golden curvature (gold for honour). The white silhouette of a charging bull is in the lower section of the oval shield, superimposed on a black old French shield and the charging bull is a symbol of the comune of Turin. There is also a black silhouette of a mural crown above the black spherical triangle's base. This is a reminiscence to Augusta Tourinorum, the old city of the Roman era which the present capital of Piedmont region is its cultural heiress.
In August 2006, Juventus returned to play in the Stadio Comunale, then known as Stadio Olimpico, after the restructuring of the stadium for the 2006 Winter Olympics onward. In November 2008, Juventus announced that they would invest around €120 million to build a new ground, the Juventus Stadium, on the site of delle Alpi. Unlike the old ground, there is not a running track and instead the pitch is only 7.5 metres away from the stands. The capacity is 41,507. Work began during spring 2009 and the stadium was opened on 8 September 2011, ahead of the start of the 2011–12 season. Since 1 July 2017, the Juventus Stadium is known commercially as the Allianz Stadium of Turin for six seasons until 30 June 2023.
The official anthem of Juventus is Juve (storia di un grande amore), or Juve (story of a great love) in English, written by Alessandra Torre and Claudio Guidetti, in the version of the singer and musician Paolo Belli composed in 2007. In 2016, a documentary film called Black and White Stripes: The Juventus Story was produced by the La Villa brothers about Juventus. On 16 February 2018, the first three episodes of a docu-series called First Team: Juventus, which followed the club throughout the season, by spending time with the players behind the scenes both on and off the field, was released on Netflix; the other three episodes were released on 6 July 2018.
Juventus re-capitalized on 28 June 2007, increasing €104,807,731.60 of share capital. The team made an aggregate net loss in the following seasons (2006 to date): –€927,569 (2006–07), –€20,787,469 (2007–08), net income €6,582,489 (2008–09) and net loss €10,967,944 (2009–10). After an unaudited €43,411,481 net loss was recorded in the first nine months of 2010–11 season, the board of directors announced that a capital increase of €120 million was planned, scheduled to submit to the extraordinary shareholder's meeting in October. Eventually, the 2010–11 season net loss was €95,414,019. In the 2012–13 season, Juventus continued to recover from recent seasons' net losses thanks to the biggest payment in UEFA's Champions League 2012–13 revenue distribution, earning €65.3 million. Despite being knocked out in the quarterfinal stage, Juventus took the lion's share thanks to the largesse of the Italian national TV market and the division of revenues with the only other Italian team making the competition's final phase, Milan. Confirming the trend of marked improvement in net result, the 2013–14 financial year closed with a loss of €6.7 million, but with the first positive operating income since 2006. In the 2014–15 season, by the excellent sports results achieved (the fourth year in a row of Serie A titles, the tenth Coppa Italia title and playing the Champions League final), net income reached €2.3 million. Compared to the loss of €6.7 million last year, 2014–15 showed a positive change of €9 million and returned to a profit after six years since 2008–09. As Italy's famous pink sports newspaper, La Gazzetta dello Sport, produced its annual list of salaries in Serie A, there was one headline that stuck out above all the rest .CR7 that has elevated Juve's total spend. The Old Lady has no less than nine players earning €6 million or more per season compared to just three who take home more than that figure in the entirety of the rest of the league. Their struggles in selling players during the previous transfer window has also served to increase their overall spend on wages. Juve tried and failed to sell Paulo Dybala, Sami Khedira, Gonzalo Higuain and Mario Mandzukic in the summer, players who cost the club €26.8 million per season in salaries.
From 1 July 2008, the club has implemented a safety management system for employees and athletes in compliance with the requirements of international OHSAS 18001:2007 regulation and a Safety Management System in the medical sector according to the international ISO 9001:2000 resolution.
Ferrara's stint as Juventus manager, however, proved to be unsuccessful, with Juventus knocked out of Champions League and Coppa Italia, as well as just lying on the sixth place in the league table at the end of January 2010, leading to the dismissal of Ferrara and the naming of Alberto Zaccheroni as caretaker manager. Zaccheroni could not help the side improve, as Juventus finished the season in seventh place in Serie A. For the 2010–11 season, Jean-Claude Blanc was replaced by Andrea Agnelli as the club's president. Agnelli's first action was to replace Zaccheroni and director of sport Alessio Secco with Sampdoria manager Luigi Delneri and director of sport Giuseppe Marotta. However, Delneri failed to improve their fortunes and was dismissed. Former player and fan favourite Antonio Conte, fresh after winning promotion with Siena, was named as Delneri's replacement. In September 2011, Juventus relocated to the new Juventus Stadium.
Juventus unofficially won their 30th league title in 2011–12, but a dispute with the FIGC, which stripped Juventus of their 2004–05 and 2005–06 titles due to their involvement in a 2006 Italian football scandal, left their official total at 28. They elected to wear no stars at all the following season. Juventus won their 30th title in 2013–14 and thus earned the right to wear their third star, but club president Andrea Agnelli stated that the club suspended the use of the stars until another team wins their 20th championship, thus having the right to wear two stars, "to emphasise Juventus' superiority". However, for the 2015–16 season, Juventus reintroduced the stars and added the third star to their jersey as well with new kit manufacturers Adidas, in addition to the Coppa Italia badge for winning their tenth Coppa Italia the previous season. For the 2016–17 season, Juventus re-designed their kit with a different take on the trademark black and white stripes. For the 2017–18 season, Juventus introduced the J shaped logo onto the kits.
With Conte as manager, Juventus went unbeaten for the entire 2011–12 Serie A season. Towards the second half of the season, the team was mostly competing with northern rivals Milan for first place in a tight contest. Juventus won the title on the 37th matchday after beating Cagliari 2–0 and Milan losing to Internazionale 4–2. After a 3–1 win in the final matchday against Atalanta, Juventus became the first team to go the season unbeaten in the current 38-game format. Other noteworthy achievements included the biggest away win (5–0 at Fiorentina), best defensive record (20 goals conceded, fewest ever in the current league format) in Serie A and second best in the top six European leagues that year. In 2013–14, Juventus won a third consecutive scudetto with a record 102 points and 33 wins. The title was the 30th official league championship in the club's history. They also achieved the semi-finals of Europa League, where they were eliminated at home against ten-man Benfica's catenaccio, missing the final at the Juventus Stadium.
In 2014–15, Massimiliano Allegri was appointed as manager, with whom Juventus won their 31st official title, making it a fourth-straight, as well as achieving a record tenth Coppa Italia for the double. The club also beat Real Madrid in the semi-finals of the Champions League 3–2 on aggregate to face Barcelona in the final in Berlin for the first time since the 2002–03 Champions League. Juventus lost the final to Barcelona 3–1 after an early fourth-minute goal from Ivan Rakitić, followed by an Álvaro Morata equalizer in the 55th minute. Then Barcelona took the lead again with a goal from Luis Suárez in the 70th minute, followed by a final minute goal by Neymar as Juventus were caught out on the counterattack. On 14 December 2015, Juventus won the Serie A Football Club of the Year award for the 2014–15 season, the fourth time in succession. On 25 April 2016, the club won their fifth-straight title (and 32nd overall) since last winning five-straight between 1930 and 1931 and 1934–35, after second place Napoli lost to Roma to give Juventus mathematical certainty of the title with three games to spare; last losing to Sassuolo on 25 October 2015, which left them in 12th place, before taking 73 points of a possible 75. On 21 May, the club then won the Coppa Italia for the 11th time and their second-straight title, becoming the first team in Italy's history to complete Serie A and Coppa Italia doubles in back-to-back seasons.
According to the Deloitte Football Money League, a research published by consultants Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu on 17 January 2014, Juventus are the ninth-highest earning football club in the world with an estimated revenue of €272.4 million, the most for an Italian club. The club is also ranked ninth on Forbes' list of the most valuable football clubs in the world with an estimate value of US$850 million (€654 million), making them the second richest association football club in Italy.
As early as 2010, Juventus considered challenging the stripping of their scudetto from 2005 and the non-assignment of the 2006 title, dependent on the results of trials connected to the 2006 scandal. When former general manager Luciano Moggi's conviction in criminal court in connection with the scandal was partially written off by the Supreme Court on 23 March 2015, the club sued the Italian Football Federation (FIGC) for €443 million for damages caused by their 2006 relegation. FIGC president Carlo Tavecchio offered to discuss reinstatement of the lost scudetti in exchange for Juventus dropping the lawsuit. On 9 September 2015, the Supreme Court released a 150-page document that explained its final ruling of the case: despite that Moggi's remaining charges were cancelled without a new trial due to statute of limitations, the court confirmed that Moggi was actively involved in the sporting fraud which was intended to favor Juventus and increase his own personal benefits. Eventually, in 2016 the TAR tribunal rejected the request of compensation promoted by Juventus.
In September 2015, Juventus officially announced a new project called JKids for its junior supporters on its website. Along with this project, Juventus also introduced a new mascot to all its fans which is called J. J is a cartoon-designed zebra, black and white stripes with golden edge piping on its body, golden shining eyes, and three golden stars on the front of its neck. J made its debut at Juventus Stadium on 12 September 2015.
The club has earned the distinction of being allowed to wear three Golden Stars (Italian: stelle d'oro) on its shirts representing its league victories, the tenth of which was achieved during the 1957–58 season, the 20th in the 1981–82 season and the 30th in the 2013–14 season. Juventus were the first Italian team to have achieved the national double four times (winning the Italian top tier division and the national cup competition in the same season), in the 1959–60, 1994–95, 2014–15 and 2015–16 seasons. In the 2015–16 season, Juventus won the Coppa Italia for the 11th time and their second-straight title, becoming the first team in Italy's history to complete Serie A and Coppa Italia doubles in back-to-back seasons; Juventus would go on to win another two consecutive doubles in 2016–17 and 2017–18.
Juventus is the best-supported football club in Italy, with over 12 million fans or tifosi, which represent approximately 34% of the total Italian football fans according to a research published in September 2016 by Italian research agency Demos & Pi, as well as one of the most supported football clubs in the world, with over 300 million supporters (41 million in Europe alone), particularly in the Mediterranean countries to which a large number of Italian diaspora have emigrated. The Torinese side has fan clubs branches across the globe.
Italy's most successful club of the 20th century and the most successful club in the history of Italian football, Juventus have won the Italian League Championship, the country's premier football club competition and organised by Lega Nazionale Professionisti Serie A (LNPA), a record 35 times and have the record of consecutive triumphs in that tournament (eight, between 2011–12 and 2018–19). They have also won the Coppa Italia, the country's primary single-elimination competition, a record 13 times, becoming the first team to retain the trophy successfully with their triumph in the 1959–60 season, and the first to win it in three consecutive seasons from the 2014–15 season to the 2016–17 season, and went on to win it a fourth consecutive time in 2017–18. In addition, the club holds the record for Supercoppa Italiana wins with eight, the most recent coming in 2018.
On 17 May 2017, Juventus won their 12th Coppa Italia title in a 2–0 win over Lazio (the first team to win three consecutive championships). Four days later on 21 May, Juventus became the first team to win six consecutive Serie A titles. On 3 June 2017, Juventus reached a second Champions League Final in three years, but were defeated 1–4 by defending champions Real Madrid—a stampede in Turin happened ten minutes before the end of the match. On 9 May 2018, Juventus won their 13th Coppa Italia title, and fourth in a row, in a 4–0 win over Milan, extending the all-time record of successive Coppa Italia titles. Four days later on 13 May, Juventus secured their seventh consecutive Serie A title, extending the all-time record of successive triumphs in the competition. In July 2018, Juventus broke the record for a fee paid for a player over 30 years old and the record for a fee paid by an Italian club by purchasing the 33-year-old Cristiano Ronaldo from Real Madrid for €112 million, or £99.2 million. On 20 April 2019, Juventus secured their eighth consecutive Serie A title, further extending the all-time record of successive triumphs in the competition.