Edward Harrison Norton (born August 18, 1969) is an American actor and filmmaker. He has received numerous awards and nominations, including a Golden Globe Award and three Academy Award nominations.
Edward Harrison Norton was born into a progressive Episcopalian family in Boston, Massachusetts, on August 18, 1969. He was raised in Columbia, Maryland. His father, Edward Mower Norton Jr., served in Vietnam as a Marine lieutenant before becoming an environmental lawyer and conservation advocate working in Asia and a federal prosecutor in the Carter administration. His mother, Lydia Robinson "Robin" Rouse, was an English teacher who died of a brain tumor in 1997. Norton's maternal grandfather, James Rouse, was the founder of real-estate developer The Rouse Company and co-founder of the real estate corporation Enterprise Community Partners. He has two younger siblings named Molly and James.
In 1984, Norton won the acting cup at Pasquaney, an annual summer camp for boys in Hebron, New Hampshire, where he later returned as a theater director. He subsequently immersed himself in films, naming Dustin Hoffman and Robert De Niro as two of his early inspirations because "the ones [he] liked were also the ones who made [him] think [he] could do it because they weren't the most handsome guys". He graduated from Wilde Lake High School in 1987. He attended Yale College, where he earned a BA in History. While there, he also studied Japanese, acted in university productions, and was a competitive rower. After graduating from Yale in 1991, conversant in Japanese, Norton worked not-for-profit as a representative for his grandfather's company Enterprise Community Partners in Osaka, Japan. He also trained in aikido and krav maga in both the U.S. and Japan.
Born in Massachusetts and raised in Maryland, Norton was drawn to theatrical productions at local venues as a child. After graduating from Yale College in 1991, he worked for a few months in Japan before moving to New York City to pursue an acting career. He gained immediate recognition for his debut in Primal Fear (1996), which earned him a Golden Globe for Best Supporting Actor and an Academy Award nomination in the same category. His role as a reformed neo-Nazi in American History X (1998) earned him an Academy Award nomination for Best Actor. He also starred in the film Fight Club (1999), which garnered a cult following.
Norton also wrote scripts for plays at the Signature Theatre Company and starred in Off-Broadway theater. His performance in Brian Friel's Lovers brought him to the attention of playwright Edward Albee, whose one-act plays Norton enjoyed. In 1994, Norton auditioned for Albee's Finding the Sun but did not get the part. Albee found a new role for him instead and had Norton read for Fragments. The playwright was impressed with Norton's rehearsal performance and cast him for its world premiere. Albee remarked that Norton was a rare actor "who really knocked me out". Norton recalled that he was inspired by Al Pacino, who also began his career in theater while struggling to establish himself in New York.
In 1995, casting agent Shirley Rich discovered Norton. He then rented a studio space near The Public Theater and presented his auditions of Shakespearean works to her. Impressed by his acting, she introduced Norton to the executives of the noir drama Primal Fear, an adaptation of William Diehl's 1993 novel. He was selected for the part over two thousand other prospects. Released in 1996, Primal Fear features Norton in the role of Aaron Stampler, an altar boy who is charged with the murder of a Roman Catholic archbishop and is defended by Martin Vail (Richard Gere). His performance was lauded by critics; the Chicago Sun-Times praised Norton's character as "completely convincing", while the San Francisco Chronicle dubbed the actor "the one to watch" after his compelling debut. Norton won a Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor and was nominated for an Academy Award in the same category for his role in the film. Norton starred in two other films released in 1996; he played Holden Spence in the musical Everyone Says I Love You and lawyer Alan Isaacman in the biographical drama The People vs. Larry Flynt.
In 1998, Norton starred alongside Matt Damon in Rounders, which follows two friends who urgently need cash and play poker to pay off a huge debt. The film and Norton's performance received a lukewarm response; Entertainment Weekly wrote that his acting "never really goes anywhere", while the Chicago Reader observed that his character was not good enough to make the film interesting. His role in the crime drama American History X, released later that year, earned him widespread acclaim. In it, Norton portrays Derek Vinyard, a reformed neo-Nazi, who abandons his preconceived ideology after three years in prison. During production, Norton was allegedly dissatisfied with director Tony Kaye's first screening. Consequently, he took over the editing (uncredited) and finished the final cut, which was 40 minutes longer than Kaye's version. The New Yorker wrote that he gave Derek an "ambiguous erotic allure" which made the film memorable, while the Chicago Tribune deemed his performance an immediate contender for an Oscar. Norton received an Oscar nomination for Best Actor, and won a Golden Satellite Award in the same category.
After Norton had ended his relationship with Love in 1999, he started dating Salma Hayek, with whom he later appeared in the 2002 biopic Frida. Norton absented himself from the premiere of The Italian Job, in which he starred, to attend the premiere of The Maldonado Miracle, Hayek's directorial debut. The two broke up in 2003. Hayek still remains friends with Norton. She recalled in a 2017 piece for The New York Times that he was among a "phalanx of angels" who helped with the screenplay of Frida to meet one of Harvey Weinstein's demands before he agreed to make the film. In 2011, Norton proposed to Canadian film producer Shauna Robertson after dating for six years. They married in 2012 and welcomed their first son, Atlas, in 2013.
In 2000, Norton made his directorial debut with the romantic comedy Keeping the Faith, starring as a priest named Brian Finn. The film received mixed critical reviews. The Dallas Morning News praised his acting and labeled the film "a smart directorial debut". Entertainment Weekly remarked that Norton's emergence as a director was decent, but criticized the plot because it "proposes heavy theological aims, then disavows any such thing". In 2001's heist film The Score, Norton plays Jack Teller, an ambitious young thief caught in an unlikely alliance with experienced thief Nick Wells (Robert De Niro) arranged by his long-time friend Max (Marlon Brando). The Score and Norton's performance was well received. The San Francisco Chronicle stated that despite starring with screen legends De Niro and Brando, Norton's acting "outdoes even that of Brando". The Los Angeles Times also lauded him as an "enormously gifted young actor" who pulled off the character successfully.
In the 1999 David Fincher-directed film Fight Club, Norton played an unnamed unreliable narrator who feels trapped in his white-collar job. The film is based on Chuck Palahniuk's 1996 novel. To prepare for the role, Norton took lessons in boxing, taekwondo and grappling. Fight Club premiered at the 1999 Venice International Film Festival. During promotion for the film, Norton explained that Fight Club examines the value conflicts of Generation X as the first generation raised on television, by probing "the despair and paralysis that people feel in the face of having inherited this value system out of advertising". While the film divided contemporary critics, Norton's role was widely applauded. Time magazine labeled him "excellent", and Variety magazine was impressed by his embracing a range of techniques needed for his character. For his performance, Norton was nominated for Best Actor by the Online Film Critics Society. Despite under-performing at the box office, Fight Club became a cult classic after its DVD release in 2000.
Norton appeared in two documentaries in 2007: Brando, which chronicles the life and career of screen legend Marlon Brando, with whom Norton co-starred in 2001's The Score, and Man from Plains, which depicts the post-presidency endeavors of former U.S. president Jimmy Carter. His next lead film role was Marvel Cinematic Universe's Bruce Banner, and the accompanying alter ego Hulk in the big-budget superhero film The Incredible Hulk, released in 2008. Norton initially turned down the part as he felt the 2003 version Hulk "strayed far afield from a story that was familiar to people, ... which is a fugitive story". He provided rewrites of the script every day of filming. Director Louis Leterrier welcomed his contributions, saying that, "Edward's script has given Bruce's story real gravitas". However, screenwriter Zak Penn was displeased with Norton's changes. The Writers Guild of America credited Penn as the sole writer, arguing that Norton had not contributed significantly to the screenplay. Norton did not participate in promoting the film and went to Africa for humanitarian activities instead. This led to rumors that Norton was sparking conflicts with the film's producers. He dismissed the accusations and said that the media had misrepresented the "healthy" collaborations for headlines.
Norton appeared in four films released in 2002. He played kids show host Sheldon Mopes, who quickly rises to fame for his character "Smoochy the Rhino", in the black comedy Death to Smoochy. It received negative critical feedback for its plot. He also portrayed Nelson Rockefeller in the biopic film Frida, which depicts the life of Mexican artist Frida Kahlo (Salma Hayek). Norton rewrote the script several times without credit, focusing on the historical context and adding some humor while retaining Kahlo's real-life crude personality. The final screenplay, with Norton's contribution, received positive reviews from critics as well as admiration from the film's co-stars including Hayek and Alfred Molina. In the horror film Red Dragon, Norton starred as retired FBI profiler Will Graham, who is assigned to track down a mysterious serial killer utilizing his psychological abilities. During production, Norton and director Brett Ratner argued frequently over the script. "He likes to challenge the director. It's all about intellectual debate," Ratner told The Times in 2003. "... Edward's instinct is going to be, 'I have to take over this film.' He's going to try to rescue the film. That's both a blessing and a curse." Despite mixed reviews, Red Dragon was Norton's most profitable venture in 2002, grossing over $200 million. Norton also co-produced and featured in 25th Hour, a film about post-9/11 New York City.
Norton emerged as a filmmaker in the 2000s. He established the production company Class 5 Films in 2003, and was director or producer of the films Keeping the Faith (2000), Down in the Valley (2005), and The Painted Veil (2006). He continued to receive critical acclaim for his acting roles in films such as The Score (2001), 25th Hour (2002), The Illusionist (2006), Moonrise Kingdom (2012), and The Grand Budapest Hotel (2014). His biggest commercial successes have been Red Dragon (2002), Kingdom of Heaven (2005), The Incredible Hulk (2008), and The Bourne Legacy (2012). For his role in the black comedy Birdman (2014), Norton earned another Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor.
Norton's father is an environmental lawyer and conservationist; Norton is an environmentalist. He narrated the four-part National Geographic documentary Strange Days on Planet Earth (2005), which examines earth system science. He is an advocate for renewable energy, specifically solar energy. After rising to stardom, Norton bought a solar energy-powered home in Los Angeles and switched to a hybrid car. In 2003, he collaborated with oil company BP to develop the Solar Neighbors program, which aimed to install photovoltaic panels on rooftops of households in Los Angeles. The initiative was welcomed by many of Norton's fellow celebrities, notably Salma Hayek, Brad Pitt, Danny DeVito, Alicia Silverstone and Robin Williams.
Paramount Pictures forced Norton to star in the heist film The Italian Job (2003), threatening to sue him for violating a three-film contract he had signed; the studio had previously distributed 1996's Primal Fear and 2001's The Score. Norton, accordingly, refused to promote the film's release. His performance was well received by critics, with The New Yorker calling him "intelligent and incisive ... one of those rare actors who hold the audience's attention with everything they say". Rolling Stone praised his character as "perversely magnetic" despite giving the film a negative review. During this time, Norton co-founded a production company, Class 5 Films, with Yale classmate Stuart Blumberg and film producer Bill Migliore. Norton was cast as Baldwin IV, the leper king of Jerusalem, in 2005's epic historical film Kingdom of Heaven. Reviewers criticized the film's lack of depth, despite the spectacular cinematography. It grossed over $211 million worldwide. Norton's next lead role was in the neo-western film Down in the Valley (2005), playing a delusional man who purports to be a cowboy. While the film was criticized for its narrative, Norton received plaudits for his acting.
He also starred as Ray Tierney, an honest detective assigned to investigate the precinct run by his older brother, in the crime drama Pride and Glory (2008). Reviewers criticized the film for its cliched plot. In 2009, Norton produced the documentary By the People: The Election of Barack Obama, which follows former U.S. president Barack Obama's campaigns leading to his 2008 election victory. Norton planned for this project in 2006, when Obama was a senator from Illinois, elaborating that Obama was "an interesting prism through which to examine politics". He had two lead film roles in 2010. He portrayed Brown University Professor Bill and his identical twin Brady Kincaid in the comedy Leaves of Grass, and convicted arsonist Gerald "Stone" Creeson in the crime film Stone. Both projects received lukewarm reviews; the former was praised for Norton's performance but criticized for its conflicting tonal shifts, while the latter was panned because of a clumsy plot with excessive twists.
Norton had two major film roles in 2006, starring as Eisenheim the magician in The Illusionist and bacteriologist Walter Fane in The Painted Veil. Set in 19th-century Austria-Hungary, The Illusionist was loosely based on novelist Steven Millhauser's short story "Eisenheim the Illusionist" and received generally positive critical reviews. The San Francisco Chronicle dubbed the film "rich and elegant" and wrote of Norton's character: "he doesn't just seduce the on-screen audience but the audience watching in the movie theater". The Houston Chronicle similarly lauded the film for its vibrant plot and described Norton's performance as "mysterious and understated". Norton co-produced The Painted Veil, in which he starred with Naomi Watts, who portrayed his character's unfaithful wife. Like his previous venture, The Painted Veil garnered positive feedback from reviewers. The Guardian applauded the film as "faultless" and "powerful" as well as Norton's "genuinely affecting" performance. Entertainment Weekly appreciated that Norton's production effort did not affect his conventionally compelling acting.
Norton has served as a member of the board of trustees of Enterprise Community Partners, a non-profit developer of affordable housing founded by his grandparents, since 1998. The company has invested $9 billion in equity capital, pre-development lending, mortgage financing, and house building for low-income Americans. In 2008, Norton initiated the company's plan to embark on green affordable housing. This originated with his concerns over environmental issues and sustainable development in addition to housing problems. He attributed his involvement in community building to his upbringing in Columbia, Maryland, which is a planned city built in the 1960s and home to a diverse population.
Norton is a supporter of the African Wildlife Foundation and its "Say No" campaign which raises awareness and fights against illegal poaching of elephants and rhinoceroses for ivory and horn. He is the president of the American branch of the Maasai Wilderness Conservation Trust. The organization aims to preserve the ecosystems and biodiversity of East Africa through conservation which directly benefits the local Maasai communities. To raise money for the trust, Norton fielded a team of thirty runners for the New York City Marathon on November 1, 2009; the team included himself, three Maasai tribesmen, and fellow celebrity musician Alanis Morissette. He raised over $1.2 million for the Trust after completing his run.
After the successful fundraising for the Maasai Conservation, Norton launched an online fundraising platform called Crowdrise in May 2010. The website uses a social-networking framework to help raise funds for charity. In July 2010, the then-Secretary-General of the United Nations (UN) named Norton the Goodwill Ambassador for Biodiversity and a spokesperson for the Convention on Biological Diversity. At his designation ceremony, Norton said that biodiversity is an issue that "transcends national boundaries", with people "having lost sight" of the need for environmental protection. As part of his job as a UN Ambassador, Norton has embarked on trips to Africa and participated in programs organized by UN bodies including the Development and Environment Programmes. He also played soccer (football) for Soccer Aid in May 2012; the event raised over £4.9 million for UNICEF to assist children worldwide.
Norton had two lead film roles in 2012. He starred as scoutmaster Randy Ward in charge of finding his missing camper in the coming-of-age film Moonrise Kingdom, directed by Wes Anderson. The film was acclaimed by critics and grossed over $68 million. His other lead role was in the action thriller The Bourne Legacy, the fourth installment in the Bourne series. In the film, Norton portrayed retired Air Force colonel Eric Byer, who decides to terminate an illegal operation after it is exposed to the FBI, and kill everyone involved. The Bourne Legacy received lukewarm reviews but has been Norton's highest-grossing venture so far, earning over $276 million worldwide. Norton also produced the comedy-drama Thanks for Sharing (2012) under his company Class 5 Films. This production venture received a mixed response. The Guardian panned the film as "smug and humourless", while The Washington Post called it "surprisingly wise, funny and affecting".
In 2014, Norton played in two Academy Award-winning films, The Grand Budapest Hotel and Birdman or (The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance). He collaborated again with director Anderson for The Grand Budapest Hotel, which featured an ensemble cast and won four Academy Awards. In the black comedy Birdman, Norton played Broadway method actor Mike Shiner, who is talented but hard to work with. The film, as well as Norton's performance, was well received by critics. The Los Angeles Times lauded him for successfully portraying the volatility of the character, and Newsday complimented his "truly moving" poetic delivery. The film won the Academy Award for Best Picture and earned Norton his third Academy nomination for Best Supporting Actor. Besides acting, Norton announced in February 2014 that he would direct Motherless Brooklyn, a crime drama based on the acclaimed 1999 novel by Jonathan Lethem. Norton had wanted to work on the project since 1999 but did not begin until Brett Ratner, director of 2002's Red Dragon, joined in to help production. Upon release, Toronto Star's Peter Howell praised Norton's direction, but thought the film was complex and too long.